VESTIGES OF the CIVIL WAR IN LOPERA, by Antonio Marin Munoz.

          From the last Days of Local(Diciembre History of 2000) all this patrimony coming from the civil war espa6nola(1936-1939) has undergone important revalorización(estaba practically olvidado), reason why the interest of many historians has waked up since then, specially of local scope, although also they have come to Lopera studious coming from different points from the province of Jaén, Andalusia and even of the rest of Spain. All over the municipal term of Lopera we can popularly find nowadays numerous tracks of this warlike conflict, since in the environs of the locality I locate the dividing line between both sides national and republican, known like in front of Andújar.

          On this subject, it is necessary to indicate that two nests of very well conserved machine guns next to the bridge of the Salty Stream in the highway J-2930(Lopera-Bujalance), rest of trenches in the Hill of the Esperillas and Casería de Escalona exist, bunker antitank and refuge of the civil war in the payment of Valcargado, the damages that caused a projectile of the civil war in the tower of San Miguel of the Castle of the Calatravos, the rest of a nest of machine guns in the Hill Morrón, the graves of three red berets whose rest rest in the municipal cemetery of San Ildefonso, a stone monument next to the bridge of Mendoza in honor to four rightists repression republicana(anos 40), a stone shield of preconstitutional Spain in the facade of the quarter of the Guard Civil(a6nos 40), as well as a monument in the Garden of the Old Pillar in honor to the English poets Ralph Fox and John Cornford, that died both during the Spanish civil course of the war when they defended the republican side and to XIV the Brigade the International.

          Also some caves were used like warlike refuges that were distributed by different zones from the population helmet of Lopera, but which to a large extent they have disappeared at the present time. The existing refuges in the houses of Juanito Rueda and Ana are only conserved Rock, and the caves that exist next to the High Caminillo, very next to the highway of Porcuna.Algunas of these caves date from first half of century XIX and during the war they served to the population like unexpected refuges where to be able to take shelter of the aerial attacks of aviation republicana.Después of the fight and until half-full of years 50, all these caves were inhabited by families equipped with limited economic resources.

          In the Forties, the locality was in addition witness to the explosion of two projectiles military to the loperanos Jose of the Tower Sanchez and Jose Adam Valenzuela, leaving them irreversible wounds in diverse parts of its body like eyes, gluteos and testicles. Finished Recien the war, in the month of April of 1939, passed away other two loperanos when manipulating two pumps of hand that had remained without exploding in the helmet urbano.El 30 of May of 1990 also took place the detonation of a projectile military to the loperanos Luis Melero Rela6no and Antonio Melero Monks when it was manipulated descontroladamente in an olive grove of its property, reason why had to be entered of gravity in the Hospital " City of Jaén ".

          Therefore, almost every year these projectiles coming from the Spanish civil war return to leave to the surface by the effects from torrential rains or by the traditional workings plow tierra.La citizenship has had to live constantly before the risk of which second half appears new projectiles to the being a very inclined zone to such sucesos.Durante of century XX have been many the loperanos that have used these warlike devices like possible floreros, ash trays, cigarette cases for the tobacco or like another any decorativo reason.

          When finalizing the civil war, many houses of Lopera appeared without tile roofs, doors nor windows and some of practically half-ruined them by the effects of the republican bombings. As emblematic buildings as the Castle, the Parochial Church, the Public School Miguel de Cervantes and the City council presented/displayed serious flaws to a large extent of their structure as a result of the normal development of the fight. The Main directorate of Devastated Regions, that in its origin was integrated in the Ministry of the Interior and later in the one of the House, came in the years immediate of the postwar period to the repair of all the material damages caused by the war and to the construction of new houses.

          By means of these economic resources a total of 9,325,909 pesetas was reversed in the locality during the Forties, that were destined to the execution of 39 projects of reconstruction.

          The City council of Lopera has including in the municipal budgets of this year 2001 an economic game in forecast of a possible and future restoration from this valuable patrimony coming from the Spanish civil war due to the importance that can acquire its conservation for the knowledge of history in general and for the citizens of Lopera in individual.

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