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         OLD, modern and CONTEMPORARY HISTORY OF LOPERA.




         The locality of Lopera conserves deep historical roots and a length to happen throughout the centuries, since the first data of their existence go back to the Age of the Bronze to the salary found rest of this time in the cortijos of Almazán, Four Lanzarino I and Hermanas.De the Iberian time exists in the municipal term seven deposits, that come to demonstrate, next to the numerous found currencies, the presence of iberos in all this zone, fact that is not to be strange given the proximity of the Roman city of Obulco (Porcuna).

          Deposits of the Roman time in diverse zones of the municipal term exist. However, Lopera was a place of second order in the Roman territorial administration. Its name at this time was POLESI and comprised or depended administratively on the municipality of Obulco (Porcuna). The deposit better studied is the one of Roman-visigótica city of the " Morrones ", that counted on a visigótica basilica and was located right in the limit with the term of Ca6nete of the Towers. Two Roman channels existed that crossed the term of Lopera, one to the north and another one to the south next to present Obulco.El population nucleus would arise around centuries VIII and IX d.c with more than probable establishment from the town visigodo or musulman in one of the skirts of the Hill of San Cristóbal. In 1240 Lopera was conquered by Fernando III " Santo ", who snatched of this form the locality to the Muslims.

          Lopera was under the jurisdiction of the Order of Calatrava until century XVI and throughout this time they passed through Lopera several commanders, who fixed their permanent residence to the castle. In the middle of the century XVI Lopera it had like commander to Don Juan Pacheco and Torres, son of Do6na Marina Fernandez de Torres, of whom exists a tomb in the greater altar of the Parochial Church of the Purest Conception.

          During all this Lopera time it depended on the charge of Martos and Porcuna, until Spanish king Felipe II decides to declare it in 1595 like independent villa.

          In century XIX the desamortización of the goods of the church takes place, that were acquired to a large extent by bourgeois who increased thus to their patrimony and dominion on the rest of the population. Between these people it is necessary to mention Alonso de Valenzuela, deputy to Cortes in 1854 and mayor of Lopera between 1870 and 1874, that in 1856 acquired the castle.

          A typical image of the first third of century XX was to see the unemployed day laborers in the greater seat from the town to the delay of which the turn overseer wanted them contratar.Fueron years characterized by an increase of the social conflicts and the continuous labor vindications. In 1925 with the dictatorship of Cousin of Creek the construction of the Scholastic Groups begins, and whose attainment went thanks to the initiative of the mayor of those years and national teacher Martín Valcarcel.

          During the republican time (1931-1936) it appears the publication of the independent newspaper " Loperanos Echoes ", whose director was the agriculturist Antonio Bellido Verdejo. (With respect to the period of the civil war to see the specific section that it treats on this subject).

          In the urban center of the villa of Lopera one is nailed the historical Greater Seat or Seat of the Constitution, that has been witness during many centuries of different aconteceres which they have happened in this locality, and that has been surrounded by a magnificent monumental triangle made up of the Castle of the Calatravos of century XIII, the City council or City hall of century XVII and the Parochial Church of the Purest Conception of little century XVI.A meters of this historical seat rises another monument by deep historical roots: the Pósito or Casa of Tercia(siglo XVI).

          The Castle excels on the rest of the urban framework by its great dimensions. Its main nucleus consists of two compact towers of tribute, that receive the name of Santa Maria and San Miguel. Both towers are surrounded by an extensive almenada wall, that is perimeter of the assembly as well, forming an irregular pentagon.

          Between loperanos monuments, it is necessary to also emphasize the Parochial Church of the Purest Conception, of final or isabelino gothic style, and whose construction data of end of century XV or principles of the XVI. The temple is divided in three ships, the power station with flat head that separate by circular pillars and it is divided in four sections. It is covered with pointed vault of multiple nerves, star in the lateral ones and rhombus in the power station. It has a main cover with a trilobulado arc and openworks canopies with three images: San Juan, the Virgin and San Pedro. Also it has other two North and South lateral facades.

          In their interior are the altarpieces of San Antonio, Virgin of the Carmen, the one of the Purest Conception, Asylum Heart of Jesus, Virgin of the Head, in addition to the Chapel of the Christ of the Side Cross and the tomb of Do6na Marina Fernandez de Torres, work of Juan de Reolid, who dates from year 1547. Also a parochial museum with valuable works of art and books of music of doubtless religious character exists in the Sacristía. In the superior part of the altarpiece of San Antonio barroca of the granadino painter exists a painting Jose Smiling, who represents the Virgin of the Carmen with the boy in arms, surrounded of the blessed bores.

          The villa of Lopera also counts on a Pósito or Casa of the Third of the XVI century, of deprived property, that acquires a totally rectangular form and its construction is made with stone rubblework, mortar of lime and ladrillo.En its interior was Miguel de Cervantes by year 1592 with the purpose of collecting wheat for the Invincible Navy. Este historical building has been used almost always by its proprietors like warehouse for the grain except in this century that were reconverted wine warehouse by the Sotomayor.En company the present time remains left and without having a concrete or specific use.

          Also it is necessary to mention by its historical importance the Hospital of San Juan de God, the Public School Miguel de Cervantes(a6nos 20), the old situated Town hall in the Avenue of Andalusia, the Stroll of Columbus and the Hermitages of Jesus, San Roque and Small Christ. Within the archaeological deposits it is necessary to mention necrópolis Roman-visigoda of the Morrones and the one of the Industrial estate of Santa Quiteria.

          In environmental matter, I must emphasize the beautiful landscape that offers of permanent form the place of San Isidro, located to a kilometer of the population helmet if we accede to him by the way of the New Pillar. Throughout the year an abundant vegetation and hoisted much can be present at, and in its plain the Hermitage of San Isidro is nailed and a House of Brotherhoods.

          The stream of the New Pillar winds this place by its southwestern side and it turns it by own right into the zone preferred by many loperanos to pass a good day of field in company of relatives and friends when having potable water, tables and seats of stone, hoisted much, services public, in addition to a pillar of the century XIX that formerly was used by the animals of load and the agriculturists to refresh and to gather water for the diverse fitosanitarios processings of the olive grove. This place acquires its greater protagonism in the festive day of the 15 of May with the celebration in this place of the Romería in honor to San Farm Isidro.

          In the Garden of the Old Pillar Ralph exists a monument in honor to the English poets Fox and John Cornford, who passed away both in Lopera during the Spanish civil course of the war when they defended the republican side and to XIV the Brigade the International.




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